Annotated Bibliography

Plutonium Issues

"Disposition of separated plutonium" Science & Global Security
Provides a detailed analysis of plutonium disposition options, including safeguarded storage, MOX-fuel, and vitrification, as well as a discussion of the sources of separated plutonium. Scope: Global.

Berkhout, Frans, Anatoli Diakov, Harold Feiveson, Helen Hunt, Marvin Miller, and Frank von Hippel. 3, Nos. 3-4 (March 1993): pp. 161-213.

International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book
This small-format book provides comprehensive country by country data on nuclear facilities, institutions and personnel. Scope: Global.

C.W. Abrahms, M.D. Patridge, and J.E. Widrig. Richland, Washington: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (for the U.S. Dept. of Energy), November 1995.

Limiting the Spread of Weapon-Usable Fissile Materials
Contains cost analysis of plutonium use in reactors, showing that there would be net costs to MOX use because the price of uranium is low. Scope: Global.

Chow, Brian G., and Kenneth A. Solomon. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1993.

Kousoku Zoushokuro Monju (FBR Monju)
Provides technical information on fast breeder reactors, as well as details about specific fast breeder programs around the world, with a focus on the Monju reactor.

Kobayashi, Keiji. Nanatsumori Shokan, 1994. In Japanese.

Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons
Provides a thorough review of the options for disposition of surplus weapons plutonium in the United States. It recommends three options for consideration: use of plutonium as mixed plutonium-uranium oxide fuel, vitrification of plutonium, and deep borehole emplacement of plutonium. It points out that even use of plutonium as a fuel will result in a net cost due to the low price of uranium and the high cost of MOX fuel fabrication. Scope mainly U.S., but discussion of connected Russian aspects of the issue. See our article "Plutonium as an Energy Source" for information on the related 1995 report.

National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C.: Committee on International Security and Arms Control, 1994. In English and Russian.

Plutonium: The First Fifty Years -- United States Plutonium Production, Acquisition and Utilization from 1944 to 1994
Part of the "openness initiative" of U.S. Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary to make public formerly secret data on various nuclear weapons related activities. It contains a remarkable amount of information on U.S. plutonium, including detailed site specific data. Data on U.S. imports and exports of plutonium are provided. Scope: Mainly U.S.

U.S. Department of Energy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, February 1996.

Plutonium Working Group Report on Environmental, Safety and Health Vulnerabilities Associated with the DepartmentŐs Plutonium Storage
Discusses the problems arising from storage of various chemical forms of plutonium and plutonium residues left at the end of the Cold War. Problems with deterioration of storage containers, such as formation of flammable gases due to radiolysis are also discussed. Scope: U.S.

U.S. Department of Energy. Draft. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, Publication Number DOE/EH-0415, September 1994.

Plutonium wo Tou (International Conference on Plutonium)
Proceedings from a 1991 conference held in Omiya, Japan, covering a diverse range of issues relating to the Japanese policy to use plutonium as an energy source. Provides information on the health and environmental impacts of plutonium, fast breeder reactor and MOX fuel programs, concerns about the transportation of plutonium, and proliferation dangers.

Takagi, Jinzaburo, ed. Shakai Shiso-sha, 1993. In Japanese.

Quantities of Fissile Materials in US and Soviet Nuclear Weapons
Contains estimates of production of weapons usable fissile materials in the U.S. and Russia prior to the declassification initiatives of recent years. There is useful information on estimation techniques. In particular, Soviet plutonium production is estimated using estimates of the krypton-85 emitted by world-wide reprocessing plants. Very useful for understanding estimation tools used by non-government scientists to help persuade governments to be more open with data.

Von Hippel, Frank, D. Albright, and B. Levi. PU/CEES Report No. 168. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, 1986.

World Inventory of Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 1992
The most comprehensive, reliable source of public information on weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium, with a considerable amount of historical information. Some of the more recent data are published in this newsletter. Scope: Global.

Albright, David , Frans Berkhout, and William Walker. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Energy Issues

Energia Budushego Veka/Future Age Energy
A quarterly journal focusing on renewable and sustainable energy technologies. The paper version is available in Russian. The English version (available only in electronic form) is edited by the Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology (CREST) in Washington, D.C., and can be accessed through their web page.

Information Agency "Echo-Vostok," Quarterly 1996-present, Kiev.

Energy for a Sustainable World
Goldemberg, Jose, Thomas B. Johansson, Amulya K. N. Reddy, and Robert H. Williams, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1988; and Johansson, Thomas B., Henry Kelly, Amulya K. N. Reddy, and Robert H. Williams.
Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity
Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993.

These books present detailed discussion and analysis of present energy use and of energy alternatives for the future.

Power Surge: Guide to the Coming Energy Revolution
Covers the state of renewable energy sources in detail.

Flavin, Christopher, and Nicholas Lenssen. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.

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Last updated: February, 1997